A URL is another word for a web address.
A URL can be composed of words, such as “w3schools.com”, or an Internet Protocol (IP) address: 18.104.22.168. Most people enter the name of the website when surfing, because names are easier to remember than numbers.
URL – Uniform Resource Locator
Web browsers request pages from web servers by using a URL.
When you click on a link in an HTML page, an underlying <a> tag points to an address on the world wide web.
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is used to address a document (or other data) on the world wide web.
A web address, follows these syntax rules:
- scheme – defines the type of Internet service. The most common type is http
- host – defines the domain host (the default host for http is www)
- domain – defines the Internet domain name, like w3schools.com
- port – defines the port number at the host (the default port number for http is 80)
- path – defines a path at the server (If omitted, the document must be stored at the root directory of the web site)
- filename – defines the name of a document/resource
Common URL Schemes
The table below lists some common schemes:
|Scheme||Short for….||Which pages will the scheme be used for…|
|http||HyperText Transfer Protocol||Common web pages starts with http://. Not encrypted|
|https||Secure HyperText Transfer Protocol||Secure web pages. All information exchanged are encrypted|
|ftp||File Transfer Protocol||For downloading or uploading files to a website. Useful for domain maintenance|
|file||A file on your computer|
URLs can only be sent over the Internet using the ASCII character-set.
Since URLs often contain characters outside the ASCII set, the URL has to be converted into a valid ASCII format.
URL encoding converts characters into a format that can be transmitted over the Internet.
URL encoding replaces non ASCII characters with a “%” followed by two hexadecimal digits.
URLs cannot contain spaces. URL encoding normally replaces a space with a + sign.
URL Encoding Examples
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